Adderall is a psychostimulant medication that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHA) and narcolepsy. It contains four amphetamine salts: racemic amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, racemic amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharide, and dextroamphetamine sulfate. Adderall releases dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine from the pre-synaptic neuron into the synapse. It also enhance the effects mediated by serotonin in the central nervous system through serotonergic. Adderral is classified as Schedule II by the US DEA and Schedule I by Canada’s Safe Streets and Communities Act. It directly affects the mesolimbic reward pathway in the brain and has a high risk of abuse and dependency.
Side Effects During Therapeutic Treatment
- Stunted growth in young people
- Weight loss
- Increased Heart Rate
- Lowered Blood Pressure
Added Side Effects Due To Misuse (Highdoses)
Medical Use of Adderall
Adderall comes in two formulations: IR (Instant Release) and XR (Extended Release).
IR (Instant Release)
The Instant Release Formula is used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.
XR (Extended Release)
The Extended Release is used only with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Adderall is extremely effective in treatment of these medical conditions when taken as directed by a medical profession, however they do hold a high risk of tolerance and dependency. Adderall has too been used to treat obesity, however it is not recommended by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists.
Recreational Use of Adderall
Adderall has been misused throughout the Nation on College and University campus, it is known as the “study drug”. Students abuse the drug for its ability to give them increased energy and focus. The 2010 National College Health Assessment states that 8 percent of surveyed University students said they had used stimulants within the past 12 months that were not prescribed to them.
The Illicit Sale and Use of Adderall
Students on these campus with legal prescriptions for these medications have been known to sell the drug for $5-$25 a pill. As a class II controlled substance that sale of this medication is punishable as a Class B felony and can result in 24 months of probation and up to 60 days in jail. Those found with Adderall without a prescription can face 18 months probation and up to 30 days in jail.
Signs and Symptoms of Adderall Use
Adderall is classified as a schedule II controlled substance with a high risk of abuse and dependency. While many prescribed the medication are able to maintain their own use of the medication, others quickly develop a tolerance and eventually a dependency to the medication. Those who intentionally misuse the medication (as a study drug) can too quickly develop a tolerance to the medication with its regular use. Chronic use of the medication can result in dependency for anyone using the medication, as directed or for recreational purposes.
Signs and Symptoms of an Adderall Addiction
- Intentional misuse of the medication
- Withdrawal syndrome
- Inability to stop its use despite knowledge of its negative effects
- Thoughts and actions consumed by its use
- Inability to function as normal without the use of the medication
Adderall Addiction Treatment
For anyone who has developed a dependency to Adderall they may require addiction treatment to successfully recover. Addiction treatment centers will provide the individual with 24-7 supportive care throughout their treatment. Detoxification will allow the patient to withdrawal from the medication in a controlled setting with nonaddictive prescription medications to act as a cross tolerance, weening the patient gradually. Therapy and counseling will allow the patient to work through any psychological aspects to their addiction, uncovering any underlying causes. They will learn key tools to help prevent relapse of the medication.